- My stroke of insight | Jill Bolte Taylor
- You Can Never Have Too Many Moms
- Party Hearty…Not
- I Wasn’t Drunk Driving. I Was Spider Driving.
- Guest Post: Mistreatment of My son after A Living Nightmare of His 1st Psychosis by Tamara
- Penny Positive #79
- The Springtime Crazies
- It’s My Life…And I’d Like To Make A Return
- Stranded By Dollar Signs
- Workshop 2
Daily Archives: September 27, 2017
Not The Final Chapter? We said goodbye to our beloved Goofy Girly-Girl, Violet yesterday. She was at a point where the lump in her throat was cutting off her breathing and making her choke on food, water, air (I understand that one for different reasons). She was definitely in pain and had difficulty standing up, …
Between yesterday and today, the anxiety has gone from a slow simmer to a roiling boil, and 99% without a trigger. I leave the 1% open ended cos hey, being a single mom is going to bring anxiety even for someone without the disorder.
Still, I can’t help but feel hexed here. The weather abruptly shifted again, turning from scorching to “damn it, why did I wear a tank top and not bring a hoodie, I am freezing!” overnight. With this comes the seasonal affective symptoms banging on the door. I want to hoard my acorns and go underground for six months. I know I can’t but I want to. It’s what the depression does, makes you want to function as minimally as possible.
What’s at maximum instead of minimum is the anxiety. Today, for no reason whatsoever, it is rampaging. I can’t even get caught up on the last 4 episodes of Supernatural because…Okay, this will sound super stupid, but it’s how I feel…I really can’t allow myself to watch my uber favorite shows when I am in a bad mental state lest those shows start representing my bad mental states. In other words, I don’t want what I enjoy being equated with the level of anxiety I currently feel, so I simply can’t watch the show. And it’s a damned shame, because I love Supernatural. And it’s not like I can’t watch other shows (well, I did quit Sons of Anarchy toward the end of season six because, wow, all that evil and killing and manipulation and lies, damn, my anxiety doesn’t need more anxiety), I just watched The Brave’s first episode and I quite enjoyed it. I watched Bull this morning, as well, and enjoyed it.
But Supernatural is…a long love affair I’ve had going on 12 years now and I simply cannot let my own mental damage also damage my feelings for the show. Illogical, irrational, whatever.
Welcome to the ruins left behind smoldering when your disorders continue to wreak havoc on every aspect of your life.
Well I had started a post entitled “Just Blew Another Interview” but I had to discard it because the interview actually went better than expected – they called me for an in-person interview! Wah! I think I am not the greatest judge of how interviews go. This is a job for a company that provides IT Security Services and I would be a Support Services Technician. There are pluses and minuses to this idea. The pluses are that it would be very structured, and I’d get four months of training, and constant further opportunities to learn. The minuses are that I’d be on the phone all day providing support. However for my first Security job I think it might be better than the other job that is at a higher level with wayyyyy more responsibility that I don’t think I’m either ready or qualified for. So I’m going to study my ass off for tomorrow’s interview.
NOW for the title of my blog! I have had many sleepless nights lately, well, correction, I fall asleep, but I wake up in the middle of the night, and my brain starts worrying, like about jobs, or money, and it’s like a runaway train, I can’t control it, it’s so bad, you know how everything is magnified in the middle of the night? So then I can’t get back to sleep and my stress levels are through the ROOF! So I told Dr. Drugs about this, and he says “We have to get you sleeping. How about some Xanax?” To which I replied in my head “Oh goodie!” but out loud I was like, “Oh?” and he went on about how Xanax isn’t like Clonazepam, it’s not sedating, but it just cuts off the anxiety like BAM! So he prescribed me three Xanax a day PRN, and he said he wasn’t going to give me any refills, but I think Dr. Drugs is slipping a little, because he gave me three refills!!! So I am on the Xanax train, people!!! I got it filled last night, because I couldn’t take another night of being up for hours and hours, and guess what? I didn’t even need it!! The times I woke up, I was able to think happy sunbeam thoughts and get back to sleep. So YEAH!! I’m glad I have it for “just in case” though.
I feel stupid providing an update on the other job, but all I can say is they still say that ol’ start date is coming. They just need a couple more signatures….blah blah blah. All I can say is that their delays are affording me the chance to interview for this other job that might be better for me, so I’m not mad any more. I guess I will end up where I’m supposed to be, in the grand scheme of things. I am trying to trust that the Universe has a plan….
Hope you all are having a delicious week, please let me know how you are! Peach out, BPOF
Filed under: Bipolar, Bipolar and Stress, Bipolar and Work, Bipolar Disorder, Psychology, Psychology Shmyshmology Tagged: Bipolar, Blogging, Mental Health, Mental Illness, Psychology, Reader
I got an idea about how to get through this no-Cokes thing. I’m going to go PRN on my sedative Klonopin. I think that will help enormously. If I start to spin out a bit, I can take it just when I need it. So far it’s working–I’ve gotten up on time and done well without it.
I really embarrassed myself today in class. I studied a day ahead and gave a quiz on something they had not read. So they point this out finally after I finish it. So I was completely unprepared for what they were supposed to have read Good thing it was on the King James Bible which I was somewhat familiar with already :).
I’m going out to lunch with Kim today–we’re going to eat Mexican. So we will see how that goes, Hopefully the guys at the house will finish up today–we will see. Bob is opening the office this week while everyone else is out of town on the company trip so he’s going to be leaving early and being grumpy on short sleep. But hopefully he can stay well for a little while.
Hope everyone has a good rest of the week.
It’s not logical… but OCD isn’t logical, either.
I am literally going to be sick to my stomach!
What is going on here? Is this not 2017? How? How can this be happening??? Please can someone tell me?
This is what this election has done for us. Brought out the sickening racist element into the open. What next? I am deeply sickened, horrified and furious that this is the “philosophy” that is confined and encouraged by a president of the United States!
Where are we going? What is our future going to be?
Disgusting. Absolutely disgusting!
Depression is a physical illness which could be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, scientists suggest
Now this is huge! It’s also my pet theory that mental illness is caused by the immune system! Depression, a physical illness, caused by a faulty immune system, treatable by anti inflammatory drugs! Scientists think that an overactive immune system increasing inflammation could actually cause depression! There lots of evidence that increasing inflammation can bring on depressive symptoms and using anti inflammatory medication can reduce symptoms of depression. Depression is common in people who have Rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune disease.
“One promising treatment for depression on the horizon is the use of electrical stimulation to change the signals between the brain and the immune system.”
Please read on, this is incredible.
Depression is a physical illness which could be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, scientists suggest
A new study suggests depression is the immune system failing to switch off CREDIT: INCAMERASTOCK / ALAMY STOCK PHOTO
Sarah Knapton, science editor
8 SEPTEMBER 2017 • 10:00PM
Depression could be treated using anti-inflammatory drugs, scientists now believe, after determining that it is a physical illness caused by a faulty immune system.
Around one in 13 people in Britain suffers from anxiety or depression and last year the NHS issued 64.7 million prescriptions for antidepressants, double the amount given out a decade ago.
Current treatment is largely centred around restoring mood-boosting chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin, but experts now think an overactive immune system triggers inflammation throughout the entire body, sparking feelings of hopelessness, unhappiness and fatigue.
It may be a symptom of the immune system failing to switch off after a trauma or illness, and is a similar to the low mood people often experience when they are fighting a virus, like flu.
A raft of recent papers, and unexpected results from clinical trials, have shown that treating inflammation seems to alleviate depression.
Likewise when doctors give drugs to boost the immune system to fight illness it is often accompanied by depressive mood – in the same way as how many people feel down after a vaccination.
Professor Ed Bullmore, Head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, believes a new field of ‘immuno-neurology’ is on the horizon.
“It’s pretty clear that inflammation can cause depression,” he told a briefing in London to coincide with this week’s Academy of Medical Sciences FORUM annual lecture which has brought together government the NHS and academics to discuss the issue.
“In relation to mood, beyond reasonable doubt, there is a very robust association between inflammation and depressive symptoms. We give people a vaccination and they will become depressed. Vaccine clinics could always predict it, but they could never explain it.
“The question is does the inflammation drive the depression or vice versa or is it just a coincidence?
“In experimental medicine studies if you treat a healthy individual with an inflammatory drug, like interferon, a substantial percentage of those people will become depressed. So we think there is good enough evidence for a causal effect.”
Advice | Natural ways to reduce inflammation
Dr Kelly Brogan, author of A Mind of Your Own points to lifestyle changes with a natural anti-inflammatory effect that can help improve your mood:
Exercise — Depression can result from chronic ongoing stress and exercise acts like a biological insurance plan against the bodily effects of stress. 20 minutes, three times a week or more of anything that gets you sweaty is all that’s needed.
Diet — Eliminate processed foods, especially sugar and refined carbohydrates which may increase inflammation in the body. Eat plenty of natural foods including fruits and vegetables, pastured animal products and eggs and wild fish.
Meditate — Meditation stimulates the expression of genes that are powerfully anti-inflammatory. Just ten minutes a day of mindfulness, deep breathing or gratitude journaling can help mood.
Scientists at Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust are hoping to begin trials next year to test whether anti-inflammatory drugs could switch off depression.
“There is evidence to suggest it should work,” added Prof Bullmore.
The immune system triggers an inflammatory response when it feels it is under threat, sparking wide-ranging changes in the body such as increasing red blood cells, in anticipation that it may need to heal a wound soon.
Scientists believe that associated depression may have brought an evolutionary benefit to our ancestors. If an ill or wounded tribal member became depressed and withdrawn it would prevent a disease being passed on.
However a link has taken so long to establish because until recently scientists believed the brain was entirely cut off from the immune system, trapped behind a ‘Berlin Wall’ known as the blood brain barrier.
But recent studies have shown that nerve cells in the brain are linked to immune function and one can have an impact on the other. Around 60 per cent of people referred to cardiologists with chest pain do not have a heart problem but are suffering from anxiety.
Figures also show that around 30 per cent of people suffering from inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are depressed – more than four times higher than the normal population.
Likewise people who are depressed after a heart attack are much more likely to suffer a second one, while the lifespan for people with cancer is hugely reduced for people with mental illness.
“You can’t separate the mind from the body,” said Prof Sir Robert Lechler, President of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
“The immune system does produce behaviour. You’re not just a little bit miserable if you’ve got a long term condition, there is a real mechanistic connection between the mind, the nervous system and the immune system.
“Our model of healthcare is outdated. We have a separation. Mental healthcare is delivered by mental health professionals, psychiatrists, mental health nurses and so on, often in separate premises from where physical health care is delivered and that is simply wrong and we need to find ways to ever more closely integrate and train amphibious healthcare professionals who can straddle this divide.”
Research has also shown that people who have suffered severe emotional trauma in their past have inflammatory markers in their body, suggesting their immune system is constantly firing, as if always on guard against abuse.
Dr Alan Carson, Reader in Neuropsychiatry, at the University of Edinburgh, said: “All psychiatric and neurological disorders are based in brain and brain is not static but structurally and functionally responsive to a range of biological, psychological and social issues.
“Yet institutionally we use an outmoded code which separates brain disorders into psychiatric ‘f’ codes and neurological ‘g’ codes which holds back both scientific and clinical progress.”
Stephen Buckley, Head of Information at mental health charity Mind, said more research was vital to pick apart the various causes of depression and find new treatments.
“We must acknowledge a wide range of potential causes and treatments,” he said. “For many people, long term physical illness can cause mental health problems, such as depression. This could be because of the impact of living with the illness, the pain and discomfort or side effects of medication, among many other reasons.
“We also need to look at people’s broader experiences, their lives and other challenges they face – such as a lack of access to services, experience of abuse or trauma, poor housing and exclusion, to ensure everyone with a mental health problem gets the support they need.”
One promising treatment for depression on the horizon is the use of electrical stimulation to change the signals between the brain and the immune system.
Prof Kevin Tracey, President and CEO, of the US Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, discovered that the brain controls production of a deadly inflammatory chemical called TNF, which if released in high doses can be fatal, causing people to, literally, die of shock.
He has recently developed a electrical device which reproduces the connection and switches off the chemical. Three quarters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis recovered following trials.
“This is the tip of the iceberg of a new field called bio-electric medicine,” he said.
“This is a new way of thinking about medicine. We’re using electrons to replace drugs. This will not replace all drugs. But there will be many drugs that are either too expensive, too toxic which may be replaced by these devices.”
In my last post about child abuse (https://bipolar1blog.com/2017/09/26/child-abuse-can-impair-brain-wiring/) I reported that there was decreased myelination in parts of the brain and I wondered if you could do something to increase it. Well there ways to increase myelination of your neurons. Below the link to the articles is an excerpt from the article which lists some of those ways. Very excited that one of them is Lithium!
Oligodendrocytes vs Schwann Cells
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are types of cells that produce myelin.
Schwann cells produce myelin in the body (outside the brain), while oligodendrocytes are found solely in the brain.
Oligodendrocytes are responsible for the formation of new myelin in both the injured and normal adult brains.
Lifestyle to Increase Myelin
1) Sleep (brain)
Sleep increases the amount of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the body, which in turn increase myelin formation.
Sleep is associated with higher expression of genes coding for myelination (R).
Researchers found that the production rate of the myelin making cells (oligodendrocytes), doubled as mice slept (R).
The increase was most marked during the type of sleep that is associated with dreaming (REM sleep) (R).
In contrast, the genes involved in cell death and stress responses were turned on when the mice were forced to stay awake (R).
2) Ketosis (brain)
Ketones (3-hydroxybutyrate) may help support myelin growth by being a source of energy and also a fuel for lipids (R).
The ketogenic diet can improve myelination by compensating for a deficiency in a certain enzyme (AGC1, which helps make N-acetylaspartate in oligodendrocyte). This was tested an individual deficient in this enzyme (R).
Ketones work as precursors for fat synthesis in a developing brain, especially phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol in neurons and myelin cells (oligodendrocytes) (R).
There is a preferential utilization of ketones for the synthesis of myelin cholesterol (R).
High cholesterol in the brain is essential for myelin membrane growth (R).
3) Exercise (brain)
Exercise can also increase mitochondrial function, which increases myelin when consuming a high-fat diet (R).
4) Socializing and New Experiences (brain)
Stress during late pregnancy causes increased myelination in the offspring of rats (R).
The number of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes increases 27–33% in the visual cortex of rats raised in environments that are enriched by additional play objects and social interaction (R).
Enriched environments increase the number of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum of monkeys and rats (R).
Early experience increases white matter structure in human infants (internal capsule and frontal lobes) in parallel with improved performance in behavioral tests (R).
Children suffering severe childhood neglect have a 17% reduction in the corpus callosum area (R).
5) Learning an Instrument and Complex Skills
Learning complex skills, such as playing the piano, are accompanied by increased white matter in brain areas involved in musical performance (R).
White matter increased proportionately to the number of hours each subject had practiced the instrument, indicating white matter increases when acquiring certain skills (R).
Nutrition to Increase Myelin
1) Fish/DHA (brain)
DHA is deposited within the cerebral cortex at an accelerated rate during the last trimester of pregnancy and during the first two years after birth (R).
This is possibly due, in part, to negative impacts on neurite outgrowth and myelination (R).
2) Vitamin D (brain, body)
Studies show that vitamin D3 induced a functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of facial nerve injury (R).
The vitamin D receptor can increase the production of oligodendrocytes (R).
3) Vitamin C (body)
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbate, is important as a co-factor in several enzyme reactions. Ascorbate-dependent collagen synthesis helps with myelination. Ascorbate added to rat Schwann cells and neurons promoted myelin formation (R).
Iodine is essential for many bodily functions. Iodine deficiency can impair myelination. Supplementation with iodine can help improve myelin formation in nerve cells (R).
6) Choline and Lecithin (brain)
CDP-choline has beneficial effects on myelin in animal models of multiple sclerosis (R).
The increased remyelination arose from an increase in the numbers of proliferating oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (R).
Lecithin is a component of myelin (R).
7) Vitamin B12
Cholesterol is an essential constituent of myelin. The dry mass of myelin is about 70–85% lipids.
Cholesterol is needed for myelin membrane growth. Its presence is needed in the membranes in order for the sheath to function normally (R).
9) Iron (brain)
Iron plays a key role in normal cell functions. Normal iron levels are needed for myelin formation. Iron deficiency will lead to less myelination. Therefore, iron increases myelination in the body (oligodendrocytes) (R).
Owing to its GSK3b inhibitory effect, Lithium can help increase myelin (R).
Treatment of adult mice with Lithium after facial nerve crush injury stimulated the expression of myelin genes, restored the myelin structure, and accelerated the recovery of whisker movements (R).
Lithium treatment also promoted remyelination of the sciatic nerve after crush (R).
11) Vitamin K2 (brain)
Myelin membranes are particularly enriched with glycolipids, including galactosylceramide (GalCer) and its sulfated form, sulfatide (R).
Concentrations of sulfatides increase during brain development, parallel to an increase in brain myelination (R).
Decreases in myelin sulfatides content and/or changes in their molecule structure have been implicated as important factors in the disruption of myelin structure, with a subsequent attenuation of myelin efficiency as an axonal insulator (R).
Decreases in the content of myelin sulfatides with age has been implicated as a significant risk factor for behavioral deficits observed in normal aging, and age-associated neurological disorders (R).
Vitamin K has been implicated in increasing sulfatides and there is a positive correlation between sulfatides and vitamin K, which is present almost exclusively in the form of Vitamin K2 or menaquinone-4 (MK-4) in the brain (R).
12) Biotin (brain, body)
Biotin activates enzymes involved in energy production and myelin synthesis (R).
91.3% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) improved clinically with high doses of biotin (R).
In all cases, improvement was delayed from 2 to 8 months following treatment׳s onset (R).
Two multi-centric double-blind placebo-controlled trials are currently underway (R).
13) Folate/Vitamin B9 (brain)
Chickens deficient in pantothenic acid developed skin irritation, feather abnormalities, and spinal nerve damage associated with the degeneration of the myelin sheath (R).
15) Copper (brain)
Copper is important for myelination (oligodendrocytes). When animals are given a drug that binds to copper, demyelination results (R).
A large body of scientific evidence describes the interactions among Phosphatidylserine, cognitive activity, cognitive aging, and retention of cognitive functioning ability (R).
Phosphatidylserine is required for healthy nerve cell membranes and myelin (R).
Aging of the human brain is associated with biochemical alterations and structural deterioration that impair neurotransmission (R).
Supplemental Phosphatidylserine (300-800 mg/d) is absorbed efficiently in humans, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and safely slows, halts, or reverses biochemical alterations and structural deterioration in nerve cells (R).
It supports human cognitive functions, including the formation of short-term memory, the consolidation of long-term memory, the ability to create new memories, the ability to retrieve memories, the ability to learn and recall information, the ability to focus attention and concentrate, the ability to reason and solve problems, language skills, and the ability to communicate. It also supports rapid reactions and reflexes (R).
Hormones to Increase Myelin
1) Pregnenolone (body)
The nervous system can synthesize steroids that are known as neurosteroids. They regulate the synthesis of myelin proteins and also help with its repair.
2) Melatonin (brain)
3) Progesterone (brain)
The delivery of progesterone, however, represents a challenge because of its metabolism in digestive tract and liver (R).
Recently, the intranasal route of progesterone administration has received attention for easy and efficient targeting of the brain (R).
Progesterone in the brain is derived from glands or from local synthesis by neural cells. Stimulating the natural formation of progesterone is currently explored as an alternative strategy for neuroprotection, axonal regeneration, and myelin repair (R).
4) IGF-1 (brain, body)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been identified as a growth factor that promotes myelination by stimulating the early events of myelination in Schwann Cells and oligodendrocytes (R). IGF-1 stimulates two key fatty acid synthesizing enzymes via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (R, R).
5) Thyroid Hormones (brain)
6) Testosterone (brain)
Males are less likely to develop multiple sclerosis than females (R).
Testosterone treatment efficiently stimulates the formation of new myelin and reverses myelin damage in chronic demyelinated brain lesions (oligodendrocytes, working via the androgen receptor) (R).
Clinical trials (phase II) have found treatment with testosterone can increase gray matter in males with multiple sclerosis (R).
The researchers concluded:
These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse) neurodegeneration associated with MS….This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS…. (R)
7) Prolactin (brain)
9) Erythropoietin (EPO) (brain)
Erythropoietin (EPO) induces the expression of myelin genes in oligodendrocytes. They promote neuron repair by inducing remyelination after myelin damage. However, this only happens in erythropoietic EPO receptor (EPOR)-expressing CG4 cells (R).
Supplements to Increase Myelin
1) Gotu Kola
Gotu kola helps rats make a more rapid functional recovery and a greater numbers of myelinated axons following nerve damage (R).
Uridine can help treat myelin sheath lesions (R).
Ashwagandha has an active component called withanoside IV. In mice, withanoside IV treatment increased myelin levels (R).
4) SAMe and Methylation
6) Ozone Treatment (body)
7) Grape Seed Extract (body)
In diabetic rats, grape seed extract protects against demyelination (Schwann cells) (R).
8) Lion’s Mane
9) Forskolin/Cyclic AMP (body)
Cyclic AMP helps increase myelin, especially in the presence of NRG1 (Schwann cells) (R).
10) PQQ (body)
PQQ increases myelin in the body (Schwann cells) (R).
11) Ginkgo (body)
After an injury, Ginkgo increased myelination in animals (Schwann cells) (R)
12) Quercetin (brain)
After an injury, quercetin increased myelin producing cells (oligodendrocytes) (R).
The flavonoids luteolin, quercetin and fisetin most significantly decreased the amount of myelin that were consumed (phagocytosis) by a macrophage (R).
The mechanism is through their antioxidant effects, free radicals are required for the phagocytosis of myelin by macrophages. The flavonoid structure appeared to be essential for these effects (R).
The study concludes:
Our results implicate that flavonoids may be able to limit the demyelination process during multiple sclerosis (R).
Pathways to Increase Myelin
1) Acetylcholine and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (brain)
Cholinergic treatments, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), may have beneficial effects on myelination, myelin repair, and myelin integrity (R).
Increasing cholinergic stimulation helps the myelination process (R).
The acetylcholine muscarinic receptors can increase the survival of precursor cells that increase myelin (R).
2) Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) (brain)
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) helps regulate myelin formation in the nervous system. An increase of BFNF levels causes an increase in the rate of myelination. This causes an increase in myelin content and thickness (R).
3) Nerve growth factor (NGF) (brain)
NGF promotes axonal regeneration, survival, protection and production of oligodendrocytes and facilitates their migration to the sites of myelin damage (R).
4) CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor (brain)
5) GSK3b Inhibitors (brain)
GSK3β inhibition stimulates the regeneration of myelin-forming cells and remyelination following chemically induced demyelination (oligodendrocytes) (R).
6) N-acetylaspartate (NAA) (brain)
N-acetylaspartate (NAA) supplies acetyl groups for myelin synthesis. It is essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin.
7) RXRgamma (brain)
RXRgamma must combine with the Vitamin D Receptor to induce gene expression and create these myelin producing cells (R).
These are proteins that can cause big effects on gene expression, and a variety of supplements increase/decrease their function.
10) Neuregulin 1 (body)
Neuregulin 1 is important for synaptic plasticity, inhibiting the amygdala (to shut down anxiety), myelination (Schwann cell maturation, survival, and motility), heart function (cardiac growth factor) and tumor suppression.
11) GDNF (brain)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is capable of increasing axonal regeneration myelin (R).
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase:
Epidermal growth factor receptor plays and important role in myelination and remyelination. EGFR signaling increases myelin repair and myelination (R).
ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase is a receptor located on Schwann cells. An inhibition of its expression will result in reduced myelination (R).